This article explains all you need to know about Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Twice as Effective.
Solid-state lithium-ion interface stabilization creates new doors.
For boosting energy density without increasing weight or area, solid-state batteries are one promising technology. These batteries use a solid electrolyte instead of liquid electrolyte. Also, the current lithium-ion batteries would no longer be a fire hazard.
Solid-state batteries’ lifespan has been shortened due to interface instabilities between solid electrolyte and electrodes. To increase layer adhesion, some study used special coatings, adding manufacturing steps and expenses. Researchers at MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a method to create durable surfaces without coatings.
During sintering, the battery components are heated to generate ceramic compounds between the cathode and electrolyte layers. In spite of its little (parts per million) amount, carbon dioxide has significant and detrimental effects. These new linkages operate like the best coated surfaces without the increased cost, say the researchers.
The findings were made by MIT PhD student Younggyu Kim, MIT professors Bilge Yildiz and Iradikanari Waluyo, and Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Adrian Hunt.
“Silicon-state batteries have long been desired,” Yildiz explains. The solid electrolyte’s lower conductivity and interface instability issues have hindered solid batteries from becoming widely commercialized.
Yildiz claims the conductivity issue has been resolved. But fixing interface instabilities has been much harder. However, the experts are now working on sintering.
Due to inadequate contact, gaps, and high electrical resistance, sintering is required. Sintering forces atoms from one material to bind with another. The scientists discovered detrimental processes that increase contact resistance at temperatures over a few hundred degrees, but only if small amounts of carbon dioxide are present. They demonstrated excellent bonding at temperatures up to 700°C by removing carbon dioxide and maintaining a pure oxygen environment during sintering.
“We found a way around the extra fabrication step.”
Solid-state batteries may boost energy density by using pure lithium metal electrodes instead of lithium-infused graphite electrodes.
The researchers are now testing how these connections hold up during battery cycles. Less time is needed to produce batteries, she adds. “We suggest a simple method for making the cells. Fabrication requires less energy. So we believe it can be easily integrated into the fabrication process,” with minimum cost increases.
The new research could help companies like Toyota improve the cost and durability of solid-state lithium-ion batteries.
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